Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics                                                                                                             Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University                                                                                                                               South Africa             
 


Pharmacology-Medicine-Blog

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University
South Africa




email: pieter.vanwyk@smu.ac.za          





Editorial:

R Maboa

J Pieter H van Wyk





































African Potato: The Health and Medicinal benefits

Publication Date: 06 March 2019

Tebogo Hamese

 tebogo.hamese@gmail.com

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

African potato is widely used as an immune booster for the treatment of various ailments. A study on the trade in medicinal plants in the Eastern Cape province revealed that African potato tops the list of the 60 most frequently traded species. The ministries of health of several African nations have promoted African potato for the treatment of HIV and associated symptoms. African potato does not cure Aids, but it does slow down the progress of the disease even though this is not without its side-effects. The nor-lignan glycoside called hypoxoside converts to rooperol once in the human gut. This plant also contains various sterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol) and their glycosides (sterolins), which have been purported to have important biological activity. Research has shown that rooperol has potent pharmacological activity, whereas hypoxoside acts as a nontoxic, multifunctional prodrug.

Keywords: African potato; HIV/AIDS; hypoxoside; rooperol

Mills E., Cooper C., Seely D., and Kanfer I. 2005. African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: hypoxis and sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology. Nutrition Journal. 4, 19.
Morris K. 2002. South Africa tests traditional medicines. Lancet infect dis. 2, 319.
Smit B.J., Albrecht C.F., Liebenberg R.W., Kruger P.B., Freestone M., Gouws L., Theron E., Bouic P.J., Etsebeth S., van Jaarsveld P.P., 1995. A Phase I trial of hypoxoside as an oral prodrug for cancer therapy absence of toxicity. S Afr Med J. 85, 865-870.

 

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Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM)

Publication Date: 22 February 2019

Mokatse K.M.P.

Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics

 mashadi.mokatse@yahoo.com

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is defined as the clinical practice of measuring specific drugs at  intervals to keep a constant concentration in a patient’s bloodstream.

TDM demands a combined approach consisting of pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic techniques and analyses. The appropriate way of using TDM requires measurement of patient blood drug concentration and a comparison to a target range. TDM plays a very important role in the development of safe and effective therapeutic medications and individualization of these medications. Additionally TDM can help to identify problems with medication compliance among noncompliant patient cases. When interpreting drug concentration measurements, there are factors that need to be considered which include the sampling time in relation to the dose, the dosage history, the patient’s response, and the desired clinical targets.

Keywords: pharmacokinetics, target range, drug monitoring

Begg, E.J.Barclay, M.L, Duffuli, S.B. 1995. A suggested approach to once-daily aminoglycoside dosing. BR J Clin Pharmacol. 39, 605-609.

Birkett, D.J. 1997. Therapeutic drug monitoring. Aust Prescr. 20. 9-11.

Chatterjee, K. 2002. Congestive heart failure: what should be the intial therapy and why. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs. 2, 1-6.

Gross, A.S.1998. Best practice in therapeutic drug monitoring. BR J Pharmacol. 48, 95-90.

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New Therapeutic Options for Breast Cancer

Publication Date: 15 February 2019

Nicholas Keetile

Gauteng Province: Health

BPharm; MSc (med); (PhD); mISOPP; mSASOP

keetmn@gmail.co.za

As new therapeutic options for breast cancer become available, it is crucially important to unpack the profiles of different pharmacological agents so as to select more tolerable therapies for patients.  

Breast cancer is a type of cancer which commonly originates from the milk ducts or the lobules of the breast tissue. It is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women worldwide (fig.1). Approximately 7% of women in the world are diagnosed with this disease before the age of 40. In South Africa, one in 13 white patients is diagnosed with breast cancer while one in 81 black patients present with this disease Although chemotherapy is still regarded as the mainstay of therapy for breast cancer, newer approaches which involve hormonal and immunotherapies are used today (fig.2). This presentation provides an overview of breast cancer and the pharmacological basis of both hormonal and immunotherapies used to treat it. A comparison between commonly used chemotherapy agents, hormonal and immunotherapies is drawn and more prudent therapies/combination of therapies is recommended.

Keywords: breast cancer, hormonal therapies, immunotherapies

References

Anders, C. K., Johnson, R., Litton, J., Phillips, M. and Bleyer, A. (2009). Breast Cancer Before Age 40. Seminars in Oncology, [online] Volume 36(3), pp. 237-49. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2894028/ [Accessed 06 February 2019].

Isakoff, S. J. (2010). Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Role of Specific Chemotherapy Agents. Cancer Journal, [online] Volume 16(1), pp. 53-61. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2882502/pdf/nihms-198808.pdf [Accessed 26 January 2019].

Dine, J., Gordon, R., Shames, Y., Kasler, M. K., & Barton-Burke, M. (2017). Immune checkpoint inhibitors: An innovation in immunotherapy for the treatment and management of patients with cancer. Asia-Pacific journal of oncology nursing, [online] 4(2), pp. 127-35. Available at:

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Chemical Bonding in Drug-Receptor Interaction

Publication Date: 08 February 2019

J Pieter H van Wyk

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics,

Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University

SMU

South Africa

bioenergy.res@gmail.com

Pharmacology importance: An interaction or the formation of a chemical bond between a drug and receptor in an important prerequisite for the therapeutic action of a drug.

Drug therapy, also called pharmacotherapy, is a general term for using medication to treat diseases. Drugs interact with receptors or enzymes in cells to promote healthy functioning and reduce or cure illness. The effective interaction between the drug and the receptor will determine the efficiency of the drug action. Although most drugs are required to bind weakly and reversibly to their respective receptors it is however, in certain circumstances, required that the drug-receptor interaction is more permanent and irreversible. The permanent interaction between the drug and receptor is required during the treatment of cancer patients. Example of irreversible chemical interaction is evident with phenoxy-benzamine and alpha receptors, between organophosphates and cholinesterase.

The type of chemical bonds ensuring a relative weak and reversible interaction between drug and receptors are classified as:

Ionic bonds, Ion-dipole forces, Special Dipole-dipole: Hydrogen bonds, Dipole-Dipole Interaction (not hydrogen bonds), Induced dipole – induced dipole - London forces, Van der Waals forces (between molecules).  Permanent and irreversible interaction between drugs and receptors are accomplished by means of Covalent Bonds.

Keywords: drugs, receptors, chemical bonds

References:

https://www.alpfmedical.info/pharmacology/the-chemistry-of-drugreceptor-binding.html

Katzung, B. G. Basic Principles: Introduction in Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, (Katzung, B.G., ed) Appleton-Lange, 1998, p.1-4.

Principles of clinical pharmacology, Stephen W Page, Jill E Maddison, in Small Animal Clinical Pharmacology (Second Edition), 2008

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Index:

African Potato: The Health and Medicinal benefits

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

New Therapeutic Options for Breast Cancer

Chemical Bonding in Drug-Receptor Interaction




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