Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics                                                                                                             Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University                                                                                                                               South Africa             

Online Lecture: Pharmacokinetics.

Routes of Drug Administration

A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.

Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied.

Common examples include oral and intraveneous administration.

Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is.

Action may be topical (local), enteral (system-wide effect, but delivered through the gastrointestinal tract), or parenteral (systemic action, but delivered by routes other than the GI tract).

Click below for a Presentation - Routes of Drug Administration.






Routes of Medication Administration


Intravenous, Percutaneous, and Other Ways to Administer Medications.

Bioinspired nanoscale drug delivery method

Researchers have developed a novel way to deliver drugs and therapies into cells at the nanoscale without causing toxic effects that have stymied other such efforts.The work could someday lead to more effective therapies and diagnostics for cancer and other illnesses.

Researchers have been working to develop nanomaterials that can effectively carry therapeutic genes directly into the cells for the treatment of diseases such as cancer.The key issues for gene delivery using nanomaterials are their low delivery efficiency of medicine and potential toxicity.


Bacteria-based drug delivery system that outperforms conventional method

An interdisciplinary team of three Virginia Tech faculty members affiliated with the Macromolecules Innovation Institute has created a drug delivery system that could radically expand cancer treatment options.
The conventional cancer treatment method of injecting nanoparticle drugs into the bloodstream results in low efficacy. Due to the complexities of the human body, very few of those nanoparticles actually reach the cancer site, and once there, there's limited delivery across the cancer tissue.



How the Body Absorbs and Uses Medicine:


How Pills dissolve in the Stomach:

How Aspirin was Discovered: