Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics                                                                                                             Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University                                                                                                                               South Africa             

Online Lecture: Respiratory System

Drugs for Disorders of the Respiratory System (1)

 

Introduction

The respiratory system consists of all the organs involved in breathing.

These include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs.

The respiratory system does two very important things: it brings oxygen into our bodies, which we need for our cells to live and function properly; and it helps us get rid of carbon dioxide, which is a waste product of cellular function.

The nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea and bronchi all work like a system of pipes through which the air is funneled down into our lungs.

There, in very small air sacs called alveoli, oxygen is brought into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide is pushed from the blood out into the air.

When something goes wrong with part of the respiratory system, such as an infection like pneumonia, it makes it harder for us to get the oxygen we need and to get rid of the waste product carbon dioxide.

Common respiratory symptoms include breathlessness, cough and chest pain.


Synopsis - 1


Synopsis - 2



Videos:

 Video: Asthma and COPD - Educating Patients about Asthma and COPD.

Video: Airways with Asthma - 3D Animation.

Video: Understanding COPD.



Click below for a Presentation:

Drugs for Disorders of the Respiratory System (1):

Literature:

The use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma: update

The potential adverse effects of ICS need to beweighed against the benefit of these drugs to control persistent asthma especially that its safety profile is markedly better than oral glucocorticoids.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40413-016-0117-0 

Millions of children worldwide develop asthma annually due to traffic-related pollution

About 4 million children worldwide develop asthma each year because of inhaling nitrogen dioxide air pollution, according to a new study.

The study, based on data from 2010 to 2015, estimates that 64 percent of these new cases of asthma occur in urban areas.

https://doi.org/10.1016/S2542-5196(19)30046-4

Experimental findings support a connection between mucins in the lung and pulmonary fibrosis

A team of investigators has identified a connection between mucus in the small airways and pulmonary fibrosis.


Small-molecule inhibitor of OGG1 suppresses proinflammatory gene expression and inflammation

Mice that lack the gene encoding 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) show resistance to inflammation. This enzyme binds to sites of oxidative DNA damage and initiates DNA base excision repair.

E-cigarette vapor disables key immune cells in the lung and boosts inflammation

Effects similar to those seen in regular smokers and patients with chronic lung disease.

Read more...

Can scientists change mucus to make it easier to clear, limiting harm to lungs?

For people with conditions such as cystic fibrosis and COPD, mucus can get too thick and sticky; coughing alone can't clear it. Infections develop, leading to severe chronic disease and early death. Now, for the first time, scientists have shown why coughing often cannot tear mucus apart and away from the airway lining. And they showed how to make mucus thinner and less sticky so coughing can become a therapeutic aid.

Read more...

How a small molecule can defeat asthma attacks

Small molecule PM-43I prevented and reversed preexisting allergic airway disease in mice and cleared through the kidneys with no long-term toxicity.

Researchers Find New Way to Prevent Acute Asthmatic Symptoms

A study shows the carotid bodies — tiny collections of neurons on each side of the neck — may be responsible for causing lung airway narrowing during an allergen-induced asthma attack.

Women who clean at home or work face increased lung function decline, study finds

Women who work as cleaners or regularly use cleaning sprays or other cleaning products at home appear to experience a greater decline in lung function over time than women who do not clean, according to new research.

Read more...

Research sheds light on a novel disease mechanism in chronic smokers

Research suggests that an immune signalling protein called interleukin (IL)-26 is increased among chronic smokers with lung disease and this involvement reveals disease mechanisms of interest for developing more effective therapy for these hard-to-treat patients.





 

 

Drugs for Disorders of the Respiratory System (2)


 

Click below for a Presentation - Drugs for Disorders of the Respiratory System (2):


Literature:

Engineers create an inhalable form of messenger RNA

Patients with lung disease could find relief by breathing in messenger RNA molecules.

A Decades-Old Asthma Drug Has Reversed Brain Damage From Dementia in Mice - zileuton.

Scientists have used a mice model to reverse some of the most severe damage done to the brain by dementia - and they did this with a surprisingly old medication typically used for asthma.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12035-018-1124-7



 

 

 Drugs for Disorders of the Respiratory System (3)


 Click below for a Presentation - Drugs for Disorders of the Respiratory System (3):

Literature:

New treatment for severe asthma - Dupiluma

Researchers have developed a new method to treat severe asthma. In a study of over 200 participants with severe asthma, the new treatment was shown to have improved asthma symptoms and lung function, while reducing the need for corticosteroids by up to 70%.http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1804093


Resveratrol may be an effective intervention for lung aging.

 

Researchers demonstrate, for the first time that inhaled resveratrol treatments slow aging-related degenerative changes in mouse lung. Lung aging, characterized by airspace enlargement and decreasing lung function, is a significant risk factor for chronic human lung diseases.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-208964



 

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