/

Pharmacology Teaching and Research

 


Pharmacology 


Pharmacology is the science of how drugs act on biological systems and how the body responds to the drug. The study of pharmacology encompasses the sources, chemical properties, biological effects and therapeutic uses of drugs. Pharmacology integrates the knowledge of many disciplines, including medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing, and veterinary medicine. This integrative nature allows pharmacology to make unique and significant contributions to human health.


Pharmacologist

Pharmacologists focus their work into researching and understanding the chemical processes that take place between living organisms and different substances and compounds. The main purpose of a Pharmacologist is to create, develop, and test new medications in order to evaluate their possible effects on humans or animals.


Pharmacology Honours

A one year post-graduate course (full-time) presented by the department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics at the Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University (SMU), South Africa.



 


Requirements:

Students with a BSc-degree from Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University or equivalent qualification from another South African University can register for this degree, if selected.  Prerequisite subjects to be considered for selection include, Pharmacology, Biochemistry, Physiology.  Students with at least one of the above subjects are also welcome to apply for the course.  It is required that potential students have at least 60% for their respective subjects in the final year of the BSc-degree.

Course Description

Mini Dissertation in Pharmacology (MPYA080):

Pharmacology honours students will receive a topic for a research project from a supervisor who will assist each student with the writing of a research protocol for submission to the research and ethical committee of the university.  When accepted by the committee, students will start with the laboratory research under guidance of the supervisor.  The research will be concluded with a dissertation composed of a literature study, methods and materials, results, discussion, conclusions and references with the final manuscript submitted for mark allocation.  Each student will also present findings of the research project to examiners.  Students will be encouraged to publish their research results in a scientific journal.

Total Marks: 100

General Pharmacology (MPYB080):

This course offers the basic principles of pharmacology and provide information regarding the therapeutic and adverse effects of medicines on the different systems in the human body.  The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug interaction and classification of medicines will also be discussed. 

Topics to be covered during this course include the following:

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system, drugs affecting the central nervous system, drugs affecting the cardiovascular system, drugs affecting the respiratory system, drugs affecting the endocrine system, chemotherapeutic drugs including antivirals, antifungals, anti-cancer drugs and anthelmintic drugs.

The course is identical to the MBChB 3 pharmacology course and three test will be written during the year.  A final examination will written during November of each year.  The year mark will be the average mark of the three tests and the final mark will be calculated as follows:

Final mark = year mark (60%) + examination mark (40%)

Total Marks: 100

Advanced Pharmacology (MPYC080):

Topics to be covered during this course include the following:

Introduction to advanced pharmacology, immunology I, immunology II, immunology III, proteins, advanced Kinetics and dynamics, molecular pharmacology, scientific writing in medicine, plagiarism, legislation and ethics, drug discovery and development,  drug formulations, pharmaceutical marketing I, pharmaceutical marketing II, pharmaceutical marketing III, pharmacovigilance, microbiology, traditional medicine,  banned substances in sport and aviation medicine, HIV and TB, malaria, diabetes and  obesity, hypertension and heart disease, and cancer.

Three test will be written during the year.  A final examination will written during November of each year.  The year mark will be the average mark of the three tests and the final mark will be calculated as follows:

Final mark = year mark (60%) + examination mark (40%)

Total Marks: 100

Practical Work in Pharmacology (MPYD080):

The Theoretical and Practical sessions of Laboratory Techniques:

The following will be laboratory techniques will be discussed and explained: laboratory orientation, safety, good laboratory practice, pipette calibrations, balance + weighing, pipetting, concentrations and dilution, pH and buffers, centrifugation, SPE, TLC1, TLC2, cell enumeration 1, cell enumeration 2, microbiology, calibrations and spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, HPLC, microscopy, TDM. 

Various experiments will be performed using and applying the above-mentioned techniques in laboratories and a practical examination will be written during November of each year.

Total Marks: 100

Final Course Mark:

All course should be completed.

A year mark will be obtained for: MPYB080, MPYC080, MPYD080 and will count 60% towards final mark with exam mark counting 40%. Subminimum of 40% needed for the exam.

Qualify Year Mark = Mini dissertation (40%) (MPYA080) + Written tests MPYB080 (30%) and MPYC080 (10%) + Tutorials (20%) (MPYD080)

No re-examinations are included in this course.

Time Table





 Category A:

The pharmacology of medicinal plants:

1. Agathosma betulina (Rutaceae) - Buchu        2. Cannabis         3.  Moringa        4.  Aloe Ferox  5.   Hypoxis hemerocallidea - African Potato                        

6. African Wormwood,  7.  Athrixia    8.  Pelargonium Sidoides    9. Salvia africana  10. Aspalathus linearis - Rooibos  11. Harpagophytum procumbens - Devils claw   12. Merwilla natalensis    13. Sclerocarya birrea     14.   Siphonochilus aethiopicus - African ginger 15.   Sutherlandia frutescens 


Category B:

The effect of drugs on enzymes:

Liver enzymes:

1. Alanine transaminase (ALT)      2. Aspartate transaminase (AST)    3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)   4. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)


Cardiac enzyme:

1.  Creatine kinase

Digestive enzymes:

1.  Phospholipase     2.  Carboxypeptidase    3.  Amylase I and II


Category C:

Drugs and the environment:

1.


Category D:

Medical application of biopolymers:

1.  Cellulose based biopolymers      2. Starch based bioploymers      3.  Sugar based biopolymers     4.  Biopolymers based on synthetic materi

Category E:

The pharmacology of drugs:

1. Ritalin    2.. ACE-Inhibitors



Experiment 1:



Practical 1: