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Pharmacology Teaching and Research

 

0573




Pharmacology 3 - Examination Preparation:

MBChB 3 and BDS 3

MCQ, Match Questions and Descriptive Questions:



Endocrine:


Prolactin inhibitors include:                                                                     (1)

1.    Somatostatin

2.    Bromocryptine

3.    Quinagolide

4.    Cabergoline

5.    Ocreotide

 

A = 1,3            B = 2,3,4          C = 1,5                   D = 1,2                  E = 1,4,5 


Regarding oxytocin:                                                                               (1)

1.    Induces labour

2.    Uterine contractions occur 3 to 5 minutes after IM injection

3.    Hypernatremia is a side effect

4.    Uterine rupture is a contra-indication

5.    Prostaglandin inhibits oxytocin action

A = 1,2,4        B = 2,4,5             C = 1,5                   D = 3,4,5        E = All of the above 


Regarding levothyroxine:                                                                         (1)

1.    Use to treat hyperthyroidism

2.    Peak therapeutic effect is achieved 3 to 4 weeks after initial administration

3.    May reduce the anticoagulant effect of warfarin

4.    Could induce tachycardia

5.    Eltroxine is a thyroid hormone supplement

 

A = 1,3,4              B = 2,4,5             C = 1,3,5               D = 4,5                   E = 2,3,4,5 


Relative duration of action of corticosteroids:                                           (1)

1.    Hydrocortisone – short acting

2.    Prednisone – short acting

3.    Dexamethasone – long acting

4.    Betamethasone – intermediate acting

5.    Methylprednisolone – intermediate acting

 

A = 1,4,5               B = 1,2                   C = 1,2,3               D = 1,3,5            E = 1,2,3,4


The following drug is a mineralocorticoid:                                                  (1)

1.    Fludrocortisone

2.    Betamethasone

3.    Prednisolone

4.    Cortisone

5.    Dexamethasone

 

A = 1                 B = 2                   C = 3                    D = 4                  E = 5 


The correct relative anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticosteroids is:     (1)

 

       Hydrocortisone :   Cortisone : Prednisone  :   Triamcinolone : Dexamethasone

1.             1                           4                   5                            0,8                     25                 

2.             0,8                       0,8                25                          1                        30

3.             1                           0,8                4                            5                        30

4.             25                          1                  4                            5                        0,8

5.             0,8                         4                  25                          0,8                     25

 

A = 1                   B = 2                 C = 3                   D = 4                   E = 5


Adverse effects of corticosteroid therapy include:                                                       (1)

1.    Osteoporosis

2.    Decreased growth in children

3.    Increased risk of infection

4.    Peptic ulcers

5.    Glaucoma

 

A = 1,2,5              B = 1,2,3                  C = 3,4,5      D = 1,2,4,5            E = All of the above 


Regarding spironolactone:                                                                                       (1)

1.    An antihypertensive drug

2.    Use to prevent hyperaldosteronism

3.    Inhibits sodium re-absorption

4.    An aldosterone agonist

5.    A potassium-sparing diuretic

 

A = 1,2,4          B = 1,2,3,4                   C = 1,2,3,5                    D = 2,4,5         E = 4,5 


Selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERM) include:                                (1)

 1.   Tamoxifen

 2.   Toremifene

 3.   Norgestrel

 4.   Raloxifene

 5.   Clomiphene

 

 A = 1,2,3             B = 3,4,5               C = 4,5         D = 1,2,4,5        E = All of the Above 


Synthetic progestogens include:                                                                          (1)

1.    Norethindrone

2.    Norgestrel

3.     Tamoxifen  

4.    Drospirenone

5.     Mifepristone

 

A = 2,4,5               B = 1,2,4              C = 1,2,3                D = 1,2,3,4   E = All of the above 


The following statements are true:                                                               (1)

1.     Danazol is used to treat endometrioses

2.    Flutamide is an anti-androgen

3.     Bicalutamide is an anti-androgen

4.    Norethindrone is a progestogen

5.     Finasteride is a progestogen

 

A = 1,3,4               B =1,4                   C =1,5                   D =1,2,3,4            E = 1,3,4,5 


Rapid acting insulins include:                                                                        (1)

1.       Insulin glargine

2.       Regular insulin

3.       Insulin lispro

4.       Insulin aspart

5.       Insulin glulisine

 

A =    1,3,4           #B=2,3,4,5            C=2,3,4                 D=1,3,4,5              E=1,2,5


Hypoglycemic drugs include:                                                                        (1)

1.       Glipizide

2.       Metformin

3.       Levothyroxine

4.       Acarbose

5.       Clomiphene

 

A=1,2,4               B=2,3,4,5               C=2,3,4                 D=2,3,5                 E=1,2,3,4 


Regarding sulfonylureus:                                                                               (1)

1.       Glipizide is an example

2.       Stimulate the release of insulin from B-cells

3.       Is metabolized in the liver

4.       Weight gain is an adverse effect

5.       Classified as insulin secretagogues

 

A=1                      B=1,2           C=1,2,3                 D=1,2,3,4              E=All of the above 


Biguanide(s) include:                                                                                     (1)

1.       Repaglinide

2.       Metformin

3.       Glyburide

4.       Acarbose

5.       Pioglitazone

 

A= 1,4                  #B=2                    C= 3                     D= 2,4                  E= 3,4,5 


α-Glucosidase(s) include:                                                                               (1)

1.        Pioglitazone

2.       Metformin

3.       Repaglinide

4.       Acarbose

5.       Nateglinide

 

A= 2,5                  B= 1,3                        C=3,4,5                     D=2            E= 4 

                                       


Chemotherapeutics - Anthelmintics and Anticancer:


Anthelmintic drugs include:                                                                      (1)

1.       Mebendazole

2.       Ivermectin

3.       Praziquantel

4.       Methotrexate

5.       Diethylcarbazine

 

A = 1,2         B = 1,2,3,5            C = 2,4,5      D = 2,3,4,5             E = All of the above 


The following are correct statements:                                                      (1)

1.       Onchocerciases can be treated with ivermectin

2.       Niclosamide can be used for treatment of cestode infection

3.       Praziquantel is the agent of choice for treatment of schistosomiasis

4.       Absorption of albendazole is decreased by a high fat meal

5.       Whipworm disease should not be treated with mebendazole

 

A = 1,3,5      B = 3,4,5      C = 1,2,3              D = 1,2,4                E = 2,4,5 


Antimetabolites include:                                                                                     (1)

1.       Methotrexate

2.       Dactinomycin

3.       Mercaptopurine

4.       Carmustine

5.       Tioquanine

 

A = 3,4,5                B = 1,2,4,5              C = 1,3,5              D = 1,3,4,5   E = 1,2,3,4,5 


Antitumor antibiotics include:                                                                             (1)

1.       Dactinomycin

2.       Fludarabine

3.       Doxorubicin hydrochloride

4.       Bleomycin

5.       Troquanine

 

A = 3,4                   B = 2,5          C = 1,3,4             D = 1,4,5                E = 2,3,5


Alkylating agents include:                                                                             (1)

1.              Fluorouracil

2.              Capecitabine

3.              Cytarabine

4.              Cyclophoshamide

5.              Carmustine

 

A = 2,4,5                B = 3,4,5                C = 2,4                   D = 4,5      E = 1,3,5


Chemotherapeutics - Antifungal:


Which of the following are therapeutic uses of amphotericin B?                 (1)

1.       Disseminated candidiasis

2.       Cryptococcosis

3.       Histoplasmosis

4.       Blastomycosis

5.       Murcomycosis

 

A=1,2,3        B=1,3,5                 C=2,4,5                 D=1,3,4        E= All of the above 


Which of the following are clinical outcomes as a result of drug interactions? (1)

1.       Phenytoin + ketoconazole= nystagmus

2.       Rifampin + Voriconazole= treatment failure

3.       Warfarin + ketoconazole= Haemorrhages

4.       Efavirenz + Voriconazole= risk of efavirenz toxicity

5.       Carbamazepine + Voriconazole=treatment failure of Voriconazole

 

A=1,2,3        B=2,3,4        C=1,3,5        D=3,4,5        E= All of the above 


The following drug can be used as empiric treatment of systemic fungal infections in febrile, neutropenic patients:                                                                                                                                                                                                               (1)

1.       Caspofungin

2.       Terbinafine

3.       Grisefulvin

4.       Nystatin

5.       Anidulafungin

 

A=1                   B=2                     C=3                     D=4                     E=5 


The following are adverse effects of metronidazole:                                         (1)

1.        Metallic taste

2.        Ototoxicity

3.        Nausea

4.        Hypotension

5.        Anorexia

 

A=1,2,4                   B=2,3,4                   C=1,3,5                 D=3,4,5                   E=1,3,4


The following are prophylaxis for P. falciparum malaria:                             (1)

1.       Mefloquine

2.       Doxycycline

3.       Atovaquone/proguanil

4.       Artemether/lumefantrine

5.       Artesunate

 

A=1,3,5                 B=1,2,3               C=2,3,4                 D=3,4,5        E= All of the above

The following drug crosses the blood brain barrier in the treatment of trypanosomiasis:                                                                                              (1)

1.       Pentamidine

2.       Suramin

3.       Malarsoprol

4.       Fluconazole

5.       Metronidazole

A=1                     B=2                     C=3                   D=4            E=5   


Which of the following decreases cyclosporine blood levels?                      (1)

1.       Rifampicin

2.       Potassium-sparing diuretics

3.       Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

4.       Digoxin

5.       Amphotericin B

 

A=1,2,3                 B=2,3,4                 C=3,4,5        D=1,3,5        E= All of the above


The following are selective inhibitors of cytokine production and function:                  (1)

1.       Cyclosporine

2.       Azathioprine

3.       Tacrolimus

4.       Sirolimus

5.       Mycophenolate mofetil

 

A=1,2,3                 B=1,3,5                 C=2,3,4        D=1,3,4      E= All of the above 


The following is an entry inhibitor:                                                                     (1)

1.       Raltegravir

2.       Maraviroc

3.       Lopinavir

4.       Emtracitabine

5.       Etravirine

 

A=1                     B=2                   C=3                     D=4                     E=5


The following are adverse effects of protease inhibitors except:                     (1)

1.       Paraesthesia

2.       Diabetes

3.       Hypertriglyceridemia

4.       Fat re-distribution

5.       Constipation

 

A=1            B=2                     C=3                     D=4                     #E=5 


 

Chemotherapeutics - Anti-microbials:

           

Regarding antimicrobial therapy:                                                  (1)

1.            Lower doses are associated with a decreased risk of resistance

2.            Single-drug therapy using a narrow-spectrum agent carries least risk of superinfection

3.          Appropriate specimen for sensitivity testing should be taken after empirical antimicrobial      therapy has been initiated

4.          Longer duration of therapy is associated with an increased risk of resistance

5.          Rational choice of drug is based on co-morbid disease of patient

 

   A = 3,4,5                B = 1,2,4      C=2,4,5     D = 1,3,5     E = 1,2,3 


The following are classified as β-lactamase sensitive penicillins with extended  spectrum:          (1)

1.         Benzylpenicillin

2.         Cloxacillin

3.         Piperacillin

4.         Ampicillin

5.         Amoxicillin

 

          A=1,2,4               B=3,4,5              C=2,3,4             D=1,2,5                     E=1,3,5 


The following penicillins can be administered intravenously:       (1)

1.         Benzylpenicillin

2.         Procaine benzylpenicillin

3.         Benzathine benzylpenicillin

4.         Ampicillin

5.         Cloxacillin

 

A = 1,4,5       B = 1,2,3       C = 1,3,4        D = 2,3,5         E = 2,4,5


Which of the following is correct concerning the tetracyclines?          (1)

1.        Predominantly bacteriocidal

2.        Bind to the 50S subunit ribosome

3.        An example is azithromycin

4.        Broad spectrum

5.        Predominantly bacteriostatic

 

A = 1,4             B = 1,2                 C = 2,3                        D = 3,4                        E = 4,5 


Which of the following are the adverse effects of the sulphonamides?            (1)

1.          Crystaluria

2.          Red man syndrome

3.          Inhibition of presynaptic release of acetylcholine

4.          Stevens-Johnson syndrome

5.          Gray baby syndrome

 

A = 2,3                    B = 1,4                       C = 1,5       D = 3,4                     E = 3,5 


The complications of antimicrobial therapy include:                                                (1)

1.           Malignant hyperthermia

2.           Toxicity

3.           Resistance

4.           Superinfections

5.           Hypersensitivity reactions

 

A = 1,2,4,5          B = 1,2,3,4            C = 2,3,4,5               D = 1,2,3,5               E = 1,3,4,5 


The following drugs are administered orally:                                                            (1)

 1.         Cefadroxil

 2.         Cefalexin

 3.         Cefazolin

 4.         Cefprozil

 5.         Ceftriaxone

 

 A = 1,2,5           B = 2,3,4             C = 1,2,4                D = 1,3,5              E = 3,4,5 


 

 

The following can be used in patients with renal impairment?                        (1)

1.       Tetracycline

2.       Doxycycline

3.       Lymecycline

4.       Oxytetracycline

5.       Minocycline

 

A = 1,3        B = 2,5       C = 3,4                   D = 2,4                  E = 1,5


The following are examples of fluoroquinolones?  (1)

1.       Azithromycin

2.       Ciprofloxacin

3.       Amikacin

4.       Doxycycline

5.       Levofloxacin

 

A = 2,3               B = 1,3                    C = 1,4            D = 2,5             E = 3,5 


Determinants of rational dosing relating to aminoglycosides:            (1)

1.        Anaerobic organism killing

2.        Concentration dependent killing

3.        Post antibiotic effect

4.        Narrow spectrum killing

5.        Time dependent killing

 

A = 4,5               B = 3,4                      C=2,3               D = 3,5             E = 1,2


 

Match - Endocrine:

 Match the following drugs with their respective classification.                                   (6)

 

Drugs

 

A.              Beclomethasone

B.              Thiabendazole

C.              Montelukast

D.             Glipizide

E.              Metformin

F.              Acarbose

 

Classification

 

1.     Sulfonylureas                                                                              

2.     Biquanides                                                                                  

3.     Corticosteroid                                                                             

4.     α-Glucosidase                                                                             

5.     Anthelmintic                                                                                  

6.     Leukotriene modifier 


Match the following drugs with a corresponding adverse effect.                              (6)

 

Drugs

 

A.             Dacarbazine

B.              Temozolomide

C.             Docetaxel

D.             Spironolactone

E.              Tamoxifen

F.              Danazol

 

Adverse effects

 

1.     Myelosuppression                                          

2.     Hyperkalemia                                                 

3.     Neurotoxicity                                                 

4.     Fluid retention                                                

5.     Hot flushes                                                     

6.     Acne   


Match - Antimicrobials:

Match the following list with the most appropriate statement below. Each drug may be used more than once.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (6)

Drugs:

A.              Erythromycin

B.              Tetracyclines

C.              Amoxycillin

D.             Sulphamethoxazole

E.              Ciprofloxacin

F.              Loracarbef

 

Statement:

1.      Causes permanent teeth discoloration in children less than 8 years of age                

2.      Its absorption is not reduced by food                                                          

3.      Contraindicated in epileptics                                                                         

4.      Contraindicated in patients with porphyria                                                     

5.       Prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate (FH4) in bacterial purine and pyrimidine synthesis       



Match each of the following antimicrobial drugs (A-D) with its most appropriate pharmacological class from the list below. Each drug may be used more than once.

Drugs:

A.      Cefuroxime

B.       Amikacin

C.      Trimethoprim

D.      Erythromycin

E.       Doxycycline

F.       Vancomycin

 

Pharmacological class:

1.     B-lactams                                                                                             

2.     Macrolides                                                                                           

3.     Antifolates                                                                                           

4.     Aminoglycosides                                                                                 

5.     Tetracyclines 


Match - Antifungals:

Match the following drugs with their appropriate classes. Each drug can be used more than once or not at all .                                                                                                                                                                                                    (5)

Drugs

A.      Rifampicin              

B.      Aciclovir                 

C.      Efavirenz                                              

D.      Atazanavir              

E.       Interferon α  

F.        Oseltamivir    

 

 

Classes

1.     Antimycobacterials                                                   

2.     Anti-herpes virus                                                      

3.     Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor           

4.     Protease inhibitor                                                     

5.     Anti-hepatitis virus  


Match the following drugs to their therapeutic uses. Each drug can be used more than once or not at all                                                                                                                                                                                                               (5)

Drugs

A.       Raltegravir

B        Famciclovir

C.       Ribavirin

D.       Zanamivir

E.        Maraviroc

F.        Ganciclovir

 

Therapeutic uses

1.       Herpes zoster                                                                                          

2.       HIV infections                                                                                          

3.      CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infections                                                                    

4.      Hepatitis C                                                                                              

5.      Influenza A 

Match - Antifungals:

Discuss the adverse effect that might occur as a result of IV administration of procaine benzylpenicillin.                                                                         (5)

Give five clinical conditions that require the use of antimicrobials for the prevention of infection                                                                                     (5)

Give the mechanism of action of the following drugs                                                                                                                                                        (4)

a.       Rifampicin

b.      Isoniazide

c.       Ethambutol

d.      Pyrazinamide

Describe the treatment of tuberculosis in pregnant women                                                                                                                                              (4)

List two drugs that are used in during the continuation phase in the treatment of uncomplicated tuberculosis                                                                             

List two gonadotrophin releasing hormone analogues (related drugs) which could be used to treat prostate cancer.                                                    (2)

Name the therapeutic classification of eplerenone.                                                                                                                              (1)  Describe the therapeutic action of pioglitazone.                                                                                                                                   (1)


Name two adverse effects of acarbose.                                                                                                                                                 (2)

Describe the therapeutic action of bicalutamide.                                                                                                                                  (1)

Name an infection that could be treated with ivermectin.                                                                                                                    (1)